has doubled in the same period. Thus, coupons are an
You can find it on Jstor.org . PRICE DISCRIMINATION THEORY OF COUPONS foods and ready to eat cereals are good examples of such a category and in/on package coupons is a major form of couponing in these categories. 3. Coupons as Price Discrimination Devices The basic argument in the explanation offered in this paper is that to enjoy the
N C F t-1 0 +y) 0 (+Y) N1 - JSTOR
8 days ago The arbitrariness of the yield to maturity calculation is further evidenced by the coupon effect on yield to maturity. Two bonds identical in every respect except for bearing different coupons may have different yields to maturities. Weingartner  has proved that this must be the case in a taxless world unless the yield curve is absolutely flat.
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The Impact of Retail Coupons
8 days ago The Impact of Retail Coupons By A. C. Nielsen, Jr. Retail coupons, those small cards or slips of paper that offer the supermarket shopper a few cents off on this product or that, have
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Coupons versus Rebates - JSTOR
5 days ago Lu and Moorthy: Coupons Versus Rebates Marketing Science 26(1), pp. 67-82, ©2007 INFORMS 69 dynamic inconsistencies are not present to the same extent with coupons, so this line of argument, barring institutional constraints, would also endorse rebates over coupons. Our explanation of the choice between coupons and
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Why do manufacturers issue coupons?
3 days ago Why do manufacturers issue coupons? An empirical analysis of breakfast cereals Aviv Nevo* and Catherine Wolfram** We explore the relationship between shelf prices and manufacturers' coupons for 25 ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. We find that shelf prices are lower during periods when coupons are available.
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Expectations of Coupons on Purchase
2 days ago find that consumer valuation of coupons differ markedly across brands. (3) Our empirical evidence supports the notion that consumers hold beliefs about future coupon availability. We also find that the expectations about future coupons, es-timated endogenously, differ depending upon whether or not a coupon was available in the current period.
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Distinguishing Coupon Proneness from Value Consciousness
6 days ago Acquisition-Transaction Utility Theory Perspective Previous research on coupon proneness has measured the construct only in behavioral terms (i.e., con- study premise that at least one other psychological construct, value consciousness, underlies the behavior of redeeming coupons, the authors argue that coupon proneness should be
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COUPONS: ARE THE SAVINGS AN ILLUSION?
5 days ago coupons on a regular basis. of market activity is the complicated mecha The growing importance of coupons and nism by which price reductions are offered via other forms of price promotion in consumer coupons, as compared with other price promo markets has sparked considerable interest in tional efforts. Coupons are issued at some real
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Pleasant Surprises: Consumer Response to Unexpected In
9 days ago (e.g., electronic shelf coupons, peel-off coupons on product packaging). "Surprise" coupons, as we refer to them, are unanticipated coupons encountered while in the grocery store and are intended for use on that shopping trip. These coupons target customers at the point of purchase, where nearly 70% of all purchasing decisions are made.l Accord-
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The Effect of Package Coupons on Brand Choice
2 days ago empirical analyses, for understanding the effect of package coupons on brand choice. Package coupons are cents-off coupons that are placed either on the package, or inside the package. Each year, consumers are offered approximately 11 billion package coupons. The redemption rate of these coupons can be four times as high as that of coupons
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A fist full of coupons: cigarette continuity programmes
3 days ago A fist full of coupons: cigarette continuity programmes Walton Sumner II, D Gene Dillman II Abstract Objectives - To describe "frequent smoker programme'9 and estimate the economic value of proof-of-purchase coupons of different cigarette brands. Design - Descriptive study of cigarette continuity programmes operating be tween 1993 and 1995
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Couponing as a Promotional Tool
8 days ago Coupons do appear to be an attractive money saver for shoppers, but the sav ings is an illusion. While some consumers can possibly save money at the ex pense of higher food prices and other consumers through the use of coupons, it is unlikely that coupons provide any net savings to consumers as a class [25, p. 161].
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J. JEFFREY INMAN and LEIGH McALISTER
3 days ago However, expiration dates were not used on the coupons in Ward and Davis's data set.3 We begin by converting the Ward and Davis cumulative coupon redemption model to a period by period coupon re-demption model; we then extend it to consider the possibil-ity of an expiration date effect. We estimate both the base
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Emission Trading with Shares and Coupons: A Laboratory
10 days ago Emission Trading with Shares and Coupons: A Laboratory Experiment R. Andrew Müller and Stuart Mestelman* Increasing attention is being paid to emission trading programs for the control of air and water pollution. The United States EPA has implemented a tradable emission allowance program for sulphur oxides. The EPA auction has
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mail coupons and giveaways
8 days ago discount coupons and buy-one-get-one free or floor price coupons had an average value of $8.41 (range $1.50-$20.56). Finally, mailings with a combination of buy-one-get-one free and floor price coupons had an average value of $7.07 (range $6.50-$7.56). The total coupon value per mailing changed with
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Competitive Promotional Strategies
10 days ago Competitive Promotional Strategies* Introduction Marketers use a variety of methods to promote their products. Advertising, trade promotions, and consumer promotions are three primary tools that firms use in formulating their market-ing strategies while competing for a share of the consumer's dollar.' A wide variety of price pro-
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Where, When, and How Long: Factors That Influence the
7 days ago coupons can be grouped into coupon and consumer charac-teristics. One of the most important coupon characteristics that influences redemption is the amount of the discount, commonly termed the "face value" (Bawa and Shoemaker 1987; Reibstein and Traver 1982). As one might expect, the.
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Does Default Risk in Coupons Affect the Valuation of
5 days ago Does Default Risk in Coupons Affect the Valuation of Corporate Bonds?: A Contingent Claims Model In Joon Kim, Krishna Ramaswamy, and Suresh Sundaresan In Joon Kim is a Faculty Member at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea.
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Who's Got the Coupon? Estimating Consumer Preferences and
3 days ago A consumer may have coupons for mul tiple brands in each period. A2: Available information: distributed coupons and redeemed coupons. The researcher observes aggregate data regarding the total number of distributed coupons and the total num ber of coupon redemptions for each brand in each period. A3: Immediate expiration. Coupons are valid only
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Profit Maximizing Pricing of Cents Off Coupons: Promotion
4 days ago PROFIT MAXIMIZING PRICING OF CENTS OFF COUPONS: PROMOTION OR PRICE DISCRIMINATION? J. William Levedahl Assistant Professor of Economics and Business North Carolina State University Abstract A profit maximizing model of the pricing of cents off coupons is presented that includes the price discrimination and the promotional interpretations of
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Promotional Marketing or Word-of-Mouth?
4 days ago through marketing mechanisms such as coupons to drive sales, or should they try to offer strategic incentives to stimulate word-of-mouth? Several online WOM studies have suggested that companies should actively try to create WOM communications (Chen and Xie 2008, Godes and Mayzlin 2004, Liu 2006, Rosen 2000), given that the primary purpose of users
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Factors Affecting Coupon Redemption Rates
9 days ago motional coupons. This fact, emphasized by contin-uously increasing size and importance of coupon ef-forts, provides some very convincing reasons why detailed analyses are needed with respect to coupon-ing: *Increasing magnitude of couponing activity: Coupon distributions (excluding retailer in-ad coupons) totalled $72.7 billion in 1978, up
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Airline Coupons and Pricing Adjustments
1 days ago AIRLINE COUPONS AND PRICING ADJUSTMENTS By Sumner J. La Croix United Airlines in 1979 was the first to use coupon pricing to reduce flight prices. Since then many other airlines have used this technique: Hughes Air West issued coupons in the winter of 1980, Eastern Airlines in the summer of 1980, and Western Airlines in the winter of 1982.
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may attempt to use coupons to exploit opportunities
9 days ago Coupons that require the consumer to perform more complex tasks than clipping and redeeming at the store are excluded from the definition. For example, the many variants of mail-in coupons are ignored. This paper focuses on the recurring use of coupons in established markets. The model of markets in which coupons are heavily used is based on a
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An Analysis of Factors Associated with Consumers' Use of
8 days ago An Analysis of Factors Associated with Consumers' Use of Grocery Coupons Barry K. Goodwin A conceptual model of grocery coupon usage is developed and maximum likelihood estimates of a Tobit model are used to assess the influence of several economic and demographic variables on consumers' use of grocery coupons. Specific factors considered
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A Theory of Channel Price Promotions
4 days ago coupons and rebates. Periodic sales and store coupons illustrate retailer price pro-motions. Retailer and manufacturer price promo-tions are interrelated. Push price promo-tions will not stimulate demand if stores do not cooperate by passing through the trade deal (Randolph Bucklin and James Lattin, 1989; Rajiv Lal, 1990), and pull price pro-
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Expectations, Prices, Coupons and Yields
4 days ago EXPECTATIONS, PRICES, COUPONS AND YIELDS A. BusE* RECENT DEVELOPMENTS in the theory of the term structure of interest rates have brought to light some interesting properties of the standard formulae associated with the pricing of fixed coupon securities.1 In the more specific context of the expectations theory it is now known that for a given
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Impact of Deals and Deal Retraction on Brand Switching
7 days ago of coupons distributed increased from 16.4 to 29.8 billion. During this time period, there was a concomi-tant increase in the number of coupons redeemed by consumers. In fact, during 1974, 65% of American households redeemed coupons . Several factors account for the emergence of con-sumer deals as an important part of the marketing mix.'
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Consumer Perceptions of Promotional Activity
8 days ago Consumer Perceptions of Promotional Activity Several models of consumer response to promotions suggest that a current decision on brand and pur-chase quantity depends on the expected time until the next price reduction and the expected size of future reductions. In spite of the importance of expected deal frequency and expected deal price to a
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Price Discrimination Through Offers to Match Price
7 days ago riodic sales and coupons, price matching is a device that depends on the existence of competition: it cannot be implemented by a single firm. In equilibrium, the list price of each firm is increasing in the number of firms, and the total sales are decreasing in the number of firms. Furthermore, for a given number of firms, if firms coordinate their
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What the History of Food Stamps Reveals JSTOR Daily
7 days ago What the History of Food Stamps Reveals In the early years of food stamps the goal wasn’t necessarily to feed America’s poor. The idea was to buttress the price of food after the decline in crop prices had created a crisis in rural America.
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Can Advertising Copy Make FSI Coupons More Effective?
7 days ago FRANCE LECLERC and JOHN D. C. LITTLE* Packaged goods manufacturers distribute cents-off coupons in free-standing inserts (FSIs) in newspapers. Free-standing insert coupons are typically composed of two parts: the coupon per se and a print advertise-ment. Using two laboratory experiments and a separate analysis of
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The Effects of Brand Loyalty on Competitive Price
4 days ago management science vol. 36, no. 3, march 1990 printed in u.s.a. the effects of brand loyalty on competitive price promotional strategies* jagmohan s. raju, v. srinivasan and rajiv lal
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Steel Corrosion by Methanol - JSTOR
8 days ago coupons of size 3.2x3.2x0.3 cm^ made of 1020 steel. The coupons were initially polished with silicon carbide paper of 400 grit. Water was used as a lubricant. To prepare a fresh surface before each experiment, the coupon was briefly repolished by hand without a lubricant and cleaned by washing with toluene (certified
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Spatial Price Discrimination: The Use of Parking Coupons
8 days ago Spatial Price Discrimination: The Use of Parking Coupons by Downtown Retailers C. ROBIN LINDSEY and DOUGLAS S. WEST* Department of Economics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada Abstract Price discrimination in monopolistically competitive markets affects firms* joint profits through several pecuniary and nonpecuniaiy
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93.16 the Coupon Collector's Problem with Unequal
2 days ago 93.16 The coupon collector's problem with unequal probabilities The classic coupon collector's problem, where k different items are to be collected (say by opening packets with one coupon in each) with each item having probability £ of occurring, is well known (see ). The expected number of packets which need to be opened to give a full set
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Municipal Bond Coupon Schedules with Limitations on the
9 days ago MUNICIPAL BOND COUPON SCHEDULES WITH LIMITATIONS ON THE NUMBER OF COUPONS*t H. MARTIN WEINGARTNER University of Rochester The optimum coupon schedule for serial bonds issued by municipalities has been solved as a knapsack problem, and is widely implemented in bank and nonbank underwriting firms.
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Chronology September 16, 1990-January 15, 1991
1 days ago Chronology September 16, 1990-January 15, 1991 ABBREVIATIONS FBIS, Foreign Broadcast Information Service Daily Report-Middle East & North Africa and South Asia; Western Europe FT, Financial Times JP, The Jerusalem Post NYT, The New York Times WP, The Washington Post WSJ, The Wall Street Journal Arab-Israeli Conflict See also, Regional Affairs
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trip tickets with side-route coupons. That these tickets
6 days ago trip tickets with side-route coupons. That these tickets are always purchased in the City of Mexico, and that passengers going to the United States on their return to Yera Cruz lose their identity with that place as soon as they reach the City of Mexico. For local passen-gers from Yera Cruz to the City of Mexico the rule is the same. Third.
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